The Endpoints algebra provides operations for transforming endpoint descriptions to enrich their request, their response, or their documentation. These transformation operations are documented here.

API documentation


Middlewares allow you to define reusable transformations of endpoint requests, responses, or documentation. These transformations are reusable because they can be applied to arbitrary endpoint descriptions. Let’s look at an example.

Consider a service that requires all the requests to provide a custom header named X-API-Key. The endpoints of such a service could be defined as follows:

sourceval xApiKeyHeader = requestHeader("X-API-Key", Some("API Key"))

val foo = endpoint(
  get(path / "foo", headers = xApiKeyHeader),

val bar = endpoint(
  get(path / "bar", headers = xApiKeyHeader),

We first define the description of the request header in a value xApiKeyHeader, which we add to every endpoint definition. It is nice to be able to just reuse the xApiKeyHeader value everywhere, but if at some point we wanted to change the way the service supports authentication — e.g., by using a query parameter instead of a header, we would have to update all the request definitions accordingly.

Alternatively, enriching a request definition with the fact that it also carries an API key could be defined as a reusable transformation:

sourcedef withApiKey[A](request: Request[A]): Request[(A, String)] =
  request.addHeaders(requestHeader("X-API-Key", Some("API Key")))

val foo = endpoint(
  withApiKey(get(path / "foo")),

val bar = endpoint(
  withApiKey(get(path / "bar")),

The method withApiKey takes a request description and enriches it with the desired header by using the operation addHeaders. We apply it to the subsequent request definitions. Now, if we decided to use a query parameter to carry the API key instead of a request header, we would just change the body of the method withApiKey:

sourcedef withApiKey[A](request: Request[A]): Request[(A, String)] =

The following sections describe all the transformation operations that can be applied to requests, responses, and documentation.


As shown, withApiKey is a method that takes a Request[A] and returns a Request[(A, String)] (the API key is modeled as a String). A drawback of this signature is that if we apply it to a Request[Unit] (ie, a request that carries no information), we get back a Request[(Unit, String)], although a Request[String] would have been preferable (a tuple with an element of type Unit is useless). It is possible to fix this issue by using an implicit Tupler. See the corresponding documentation.

Transforming Requests

A request description can be enriched by adding headers or query parameters with the operations addHeaders and addQueryString, respectively. Both operations were showcased in the previous section.

As their names suggest, these operations can only add new headers or query parameters to a request, they can’t replace the existing constituents of a request.

Transforming Responses

Responses can be enriched by using the orElse operation (already documented here), or by using the addHeaders operation, which is similar to the one defined on requests.

Like with requests, these operations can only enrich responses, they can’t replace their constituents.

Transforming Endpoints

Complex transformations can be applied to a whole endpoint description by using the operations mapRequest, mapResponse, or mapDocs, as shown in the following example, which transforms an arbitrary endpoint description into an endpoint that is protected by HTTP basic authentication.

sourcedef withAuthentication[A, B](
    endpoint: Endpoint[A, B]
): Endpoint[(A, String), Either[String, B]] =
    .mapRequest { (endpointRequest: Request[A]) =>
    .mapResponse { (endpointResponse: Response[B]) =>
      val unauthorizedResponse: Response[String] =
          headers = responseHeader("WWW-Authenticate")

The method withAuthentication takes any endpoint description, and enriches its request description to include the Authorization header, and its response description to include the Unauthorized response containing the WWW-Authenticate header.

Here is an example of usage of the method withAuthentication:

sourceval unauthenticatedEndpoint: Endpoint[Int, String] =
    get(path / "foo" /? qs[Int]("n")),
val authenticatedEndpoint: Endpoint[(Int, String), Either[String, String]] =

The endpoint unauthenticatedEndpoint has type Endpoint[Int, String]. Its request carries a value of type Int (passed as a query parameter), and its response carries a value of type String (provided by the response entity).

When we apply the method withAuthentication to the endpoint description, we get back an Endpoint[(Int, String), Either[String, String]]. It carries a pair of type (Int, String) in its request (the initial query parameter of type Int, and the credentials content of type String), and now its response has type Either[String, String] (it will be a Left with the content of the WWW-Authenticate header in case of incorrect credentials, or a Right if authentication succeeds).

The method mapRequest on the type Endpoint[A, B] takes as parameter a transformation function. This function turns the initial Request[A] into a Request[C] (for any type C). So, the resulting endpoint has type Endpoint[C, B]:

sourcedef mapRequest[C](func: Request[A] => Request[C]): Endpoint[C, B]

The method mapResponse works similarly, but it takes as parameter a transformation function that turns the initial Response[B] into a Response[C] (for any type C).

Last, there is also a method mapDocs, which takes as parameter a function that transforms the initial EndpointDocs into another EndpointDocs value.